Manuscript (article) preparation


Authors have to contribute manuscripts in simple lucid English. They should bear in mind the KISS principle- i.e. keep it simple stupid/ keep it simple and straightforward. Text must be written in 1/½ space format. All pages must be numbered. Abbreviations/ acronyms should invariably be expanded when these are used first time in the text.


The manuscript should have the following layout or divisions:

Title, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References.

Schemes, Figures and Tables etc. also form an integral part of the manuscript.

Title Page:-

It contains title of the article, name(s) of author(s) and address (es) of associated institutions where the work was carried-out. The title should be brief, informative and amenable to indexing. It should list full addresses (including telephone, fax- numbers and email ids) of all authors and indicate the author who is responsible for correspondence. In case of multiple-authorship (more than two) in the articles, the names of all the authors, followed by the full postal addresses, should be given, using the superscripted numeric identifiers to link the author with corresponding address.


It highlights the main points of the article, outlines the results and conclusions, and elucidates the significance of the results. As abstract is not the part of the text, it should be complete by itself. It should not contain table, figure- numbers or references or display mathematical expressions.


NanoTrends includes dates viz. - receipt, acceptance and publication  of a manuscript in the abstracts page. It defines the date  'received'  as the date on which a manuscript is uploaded on the Manuscript Management System, the date  'accepted' is the date on which NanoTrends receives the 'Copyright transfer form', from the author, and the final date 'published' is indicated by the date on which the final  manuscript (paper) is uploaded and the issue is brought- out.


It has to elaborate on the background to the study/ research, and its aims. It should conclude with a brief note on what has been achieved.

Materials and methods

This may be subdivided in to the Materials and Methods. Characterization techniques may also form a part of this heading.

Results and discussion:

Results and discussion should be placed separately. This must represent sufficient experimental data to enable the experiments to be repeated. Authors must notify the main findings of the research, providing a clear explanation of their significance and relevance.


It should contain a precise and short text.


References should be sequenced in the order these appear in the text. The number of references should preferably be limited to 50 (with the exception of review articles). Each reference should have an individual reference number. Excessive referencing should be avoided. The papers that have been published or are in press should only be referenced. Authors should adhere to the reference style precisely. References should provide the reader with enough clues to locate the article.

It may contain ‘name(s) and initials’ of authors/ editors or any other category of contributors, title of the ‘article’, name of the ‘journal or book or other reading material’, ‘volume and issue/ serial number’ and month/ year of publication. In case of books, ‘publisher, place, year of publication and page numbers also form a part of reference.

Referencing Rules:

NanoTrends referencing rules are framed on the analogy of CSE’s Citation Sequence System.

The linking here is made between the ‘Text’ and ‘References List’ through arabic numerals. An ascending numerical sequence of citations is maintained through- out the text. If the same citation is required in the text again, citation number in the text may be repeated, but, the full citation i.e. complete bibliographical details of the cited source document appears only once in the “References List’.

The referencing pattern is comprised of two parts:

In- Text Citation – In the ‘in-text citation’ an arabic numeral is inserted at an appropriate/ relevant point in the sentence in the text. The numeral is enclosed in the parenthesis ‘( )’.

References List - It contains full bibliographical details of the source documents in ascending numerical sequence. The ‘References List’ should be made on a separate sheet at the end of the manuscript (paper/ document). The heading ‘References List’ is given at the top of this sheet.

Brief guidelines:-

In names of authors (books/ journal- articles etc.), last name is followed by the first name/ Initials. A period ‘.’ is used in initials. Joint authorship is characterized by two authors. The names of two authors in a joint authorship are joined by a connector ‘and’. In cases when the authorship comprises of more than two authors/ contributors (e.g. editors), after the name of first author/ editor a suffix ‘et al’ or ed. et al. is added.

  • Journal/ Book titles are written in italics. Arabic numerals are used to indicate volume no. , issue no. and dates etc.
  • A single space is inserted after every word/ letter.
  • '[]' has been used in the examples given below to explain/ elaborate the general format/ syntex of reference. This is not to be used in the actual references.
  • In- text citation


    …..a certain range of wavelengths of electromagnetic waves is forbidden in transmission and get completely reflected (1).

    Reference list

    Books- General format- Syntax:

    Author/editor [last name. initials, in case of editor, suffix the name by word ‘ed.’]. Title [in italics]. Edition [e.g. Ed. 2]. Place of publication. Publisher. Year. #pages [after number of pages, ‘p.’ is added]



    1. 1.Kofstad. P. Nonstochiometry, Diffusion, and Electrical Conductivity in Binary Metal Oxides. New York. Wiley Interscience. 1972. 15 p.
    2. 2. Andersen S. and Sarma K. Protecting the ozone layer: the United Nations history. London. Earthscan Publications. 2002. 400 p.
    3. 3. National Research Council. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline. Washington (DC). National Academy Press.1999. 212 p.
    4. 4. McCuen G. E. ed. Our endangered atmosphere: global warming and the ozone layer. Hudson (WI). Gary E. McCuen Publications. 1987. 133 p.